Unix Permission

The leftmost column of the directory listing shows the file’s mode. Mode is the term used to refer to a file’s permissions. ls displays the file’s type and mode together as a grouping of ten one-character fields:

Type Owner Group World rwx rw- r–


u user (owner)

g group

o other (world)

a all (user, group, and other)


+ add

– remove

= set exactly


r read

w write

x execute

X conditionally set execute

s Set UID or set GID

t set “sticky” bit

For more information: https://www.linuxjournal.com/article/1190


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